Veneer is a thin layer of wood that has certain thickness in the form of a sheet. It is produced by planing hardwood and softwood. It is used as a facing material.
According to current standards, stem wood is mainly used for veneer production. Requirements for the quality of plywood are noted in GOST 9463-88 (ST SEV 1144-78) “Round timber conifers. Technical conditions”, GOST 9462-88 (ST SEV 1144-78 and ST SEV 4187-83) Round hardwood timber. Technical conditions “and DSTU 13-023-98″ Round timber for planing. Specifications”.
In accordance with the requirements of “Rules of definition the country of origin of goods” approved by the Decision of the Council of government leaders of CIS dated 20.11.2009, planed and peeled hardwood veneer is made from raw materials of only Ukrainian origin. So it is made in Ukraine. Category of origin “P”.
Hardwood ridges with a length of at least 1.5 m and a diameter of 24 cm and more and for softwood — from 2.5 m and with a diameter of 32 cm are used for veneer production. Raw materials must be the1st and the 2nd grades.
Veneer planing is produced on a veneering machine, also on a woodworking machine for peeling veneer from pre-fixed wood. The actual output of planed veneer from one m3 of raw material is:
- thickness 0.6-0.55 mm ≈700-1000 m2;
- thickness 1.50 mm ≈280-320 m2.
Veneer has moisture after planning which must be removed quickly. For this the technological operation of drying is used. Veneer sheet has a little thickness and large size in length and width of the fibers. During drying wood, most of the moisture per unit area is removed from the side surface — about 70% more than from the ends. This affects on the process and methods used when drying veneer.
The convective drying method is used for drying veneer. In the convective method of drying, thermal energy is transferred to the veneer due to washing it with a gas-air mixture in belt (mesh) and chamber dryers of continuous action.
The drying time of the veneer at a constant speed of drying agent depends on the wood species, the thickness of the veneer, its initial and final moisture, temperature and moisture of the drying agent. To a large extent the quality of dried veneer is determined by compliance with the relevant parameters throughout the whole drying process.
Veneer is sorted by type of texture and varieties. Varietal features are wood defects and processing defects. Veneer is divided into 1st and 2nd grades according to the defects of the wood and size of the veneer sheets in length and width.
Veneer is sorted after drying and combined with offcut on guillotine shears. Sorting is done manually. After drying the veneer sheets are packed in bundles with pair number of sheets (not less than 10) in the same order in which they were received during planing, from one workpiece. Bundles are selected by species, radial (R), halfradial (HR) and tangential (T) veneer and the 1st or the 2nd grade.
Veneer sheets are cut on guillotine shears. A pack of veneer is gradually is cut on four sides with the help of two longitudinal scissors (one edge on the machine) and with the help of two end scissors. The cut bundles are tied with threads. Packs of veneer of one sort, grade and size are put in pallets. The following data is applied to the packs:
- name of the manufacturer;
- wood species;
- type of veneer;
- sort, thickness;
- the amount of veneer in packs, sheets and square meters;
- standard number.
Veneer is saved in closed rooms at temperature of -40 to +40 °C with a relative humidity of not more than 80%.
No chemicals are used in the veneer production process.